Parent praise to 1- to 3-year-olds predicts children’s motivational frameworks 5 years later
2013, Child Development
Praise for intelligence can undermine children’s motivation and performance
1998, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Researchers gave 128 fifth graders a set of math problems. All were told they did well, but some were told they did well because they “must be smart,” while others were told they “must have worked hard.” Still others were not praised at all. To inject a psychological hurdle and test for perseverance, the students were then given a second test and told they’d performed poorly. They were then asked whether they wanted to try again. The children initially praised for intelligence were significantly less interested in persisting than the others.
Person vs. process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping
1999, Developmental Psychology
A barrier of mistrust: How negative stereotypes affect cross-race mentoring
2002, In J. Aronson (Ed.), Improving academicachievement: Impact of psychological factors on education (pp.305–331). Oxford, England: Academic Press.