The Compendium of Studies that Measure Learning Mindsets provides researchers with an overview of survey measurement of growth mindset, belonging, and purpose and relevance, learning mindsets that research has shown matter for how students experience school. It is a curated, and therefore not exhaustive, collection of empirical studies that include at least one survey measure of a mindset examined in a learning context. There are three subsections in the compendium, one for each learning mindset. A citation and key contextualizing information (e.g., sample size and demographics) are provided for each study listed in the compendium. Summary information about survey items and response scales is given, as well as a link to the webpage where the study and survey measure are hosted, where available. Further permissions from journal publishers or authors may be required to access study descriptions and/or survey measures in their entirety.


We relied on several criteria to curate a collection of studies that can serve as a resource both for researchers who are newly interested in learning mindsets and those with expertise in this content area. Most entries in the compendium are empirical studies published in peer-reviewed journals; we included one preregistered report because it contains one of a handful of survey measures of learning mindsets developed for use with young children. Journal impact factor and number of article citations were considered, but studies were not automatically excluded based on these criteria in order to feature recent research and maximize representation of different disciplines, fields of study, and frameworks for understanding learning mindset constructs in the compendium.

We endeavored to curate a collection of studies that ranged in sample demographics, with an emphasis on the inclusion of studies that surveyed minoritized or underrepresented students; however, aside from a handful of notable exceptions, including a small number of studies with nationally-representative U.S. samples, most published research that included measures of interest relied on predominantly white respondents. Additionally, most studies reported on only gender, developmental stage, race and ethnicity, and geographic location, to the exclusion of other important factors like details about the sociohistorical context, and students’ primary language spoken, disabilities, and family economic background. The studies captured in this compendium reflect a broader trend in social science and education research — and, in particular, research published in high-impact journals — to both understudy and underreport the full spectrum of students’ identities and lived experiences.



The studies in this section include a measure of growth mindset, or the belief that intelligence can be developed and is not a fixed or innate quality. Students with a growth mindset understand that they can get smarter through hard work, the use of effective strategies, and help from others when needed. Growth mindset is contrasted with fixed mindset: the belief that intelligence is an unchanging trait. These beliefs about ability are shaped by the implicit and explicit messages students receive from the learning environment (e.g., school cultures and teacher practices) and other policies, institutions, and structures in society, and they matter for a number of outcomes, including academic engagement and success.


This section of the compendium is in development, and will include studies that assess belonging, or a sense that one is socially connected, supported, and respected and can trust their teachers and peers.


This section of the compendium is in development, and will include studies that assess purpose and relevance, or the belief that schoolwork is relevant to one’s own life and/or can help one connect to a purpose that is bigger than oneself.

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