COMPENDIUM OF STUDIES THAT MEASURE LEARNING MINDSETS
SECTION 1: GROWTH MINDSET

Table 1: Developmental Stage, Subject Area, and Representativeness of the Study Samples

 

Note: In the table below, each cell represents the number of studies with a particular demographic and measure type combination.

National Representative

StudentsInstructorsCaregivers
Early ChildhoodElementary SchoolGrades 1-5Middle GradesGrades 6-8High SchoolGrades 9-12Two- or Four-Year College
STEM-specific beliefs about ability Any sample that was collected in a STEM classroom and/or directly asks about growth mindset in STEM courses 1412541
Heyder, Weidinger, Cimpian, & Steinmayr (2019)Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck (2007): Study 1Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck (2007): Study 2Chen (2012)Chen & Pajares (2010)Seo, Shen, & Alfaro (2019)Yeager et al. (2016)Yeager et al. (2019)Canning, Muenks, Green, & Murphy (2019)Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan (1999): Study 2Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 1Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 2Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 4Heyder, Weidinger, Cimpian, & Steinmayr (2019)Leslie & Cimpian (2015)Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 3Sun (2018)Gunderson et al. (2013)
Beliefs about ability 2651147
Gunderson et al. (2013)Muradoglu & Cimpian (in prep)Cain & Dweck (1995)Gunderson et al. (2018)Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 1Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 3bHaimovitz, Wormington, & Corpus (2011)Mueller & Dweck (1998)Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht (2003)Gunderson et al. (2013)Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 3aHaimovitz, Wormington, & Corpus (2011)Romero, Master, Paunesku, Dweck, & Gross (2014)Claro, Paunesku, & Dweck (2016)Destin, Hanselman, Buontempo, Tipton, & Yeager (2019)Broda et al. (2018)Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan (1999): Study 1Rattan, Savani, Naidu, & Dweck (2012): Study 1aRattan, Savani, Naidu, & Dweck (2012): Study 1bGunderson et al. (2013)Gunderson et al. (2018)Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 1Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 2Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 3aHaimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 3bHaimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 4

Table 2: Compendium Studies: Sample Size and Demographics

 

Instructions: Use the arrows next to the column headers to sort this table. Press the gray buttons below to view more columns in the table. For example, clicking the button labeled ‘Latinx’ will add a column to Table 2 that is populated with the percentage of Latinx students in each study. Click a citation in the “Article” column to see more details about the study, including selected items, response scales, and the DOI where available (or click here to see additional information about all studies in Table 3).

† Indicates one or more authors is affiliated with the Mindset Scholars Network as a scholar or an early career fellow.

Article N Developmental StageEarly Childhood, Elementary School, Middle Grades, High School, Two- or Four- Year College, Instructors, Caregivers Geographic AreaCountry, Region, or State (highest level of specificity given) Nationally Representative? Subject AreaSTEM or General Asian Black Latinx White Other Emerging multilingual learners Women and Girls Mother’s Highest Level of Education Family Economic Information
Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck (2007): Study 1 373 Middle Grades The United States STEM 27% 55% 15% 3% Free and reduced lunch: 53%
Blackwell, Trzesniewski, & Dweck (2007): Study 2 99 Middle Grades The United States STEM 52% 45% 3% White and/or Asian
Broda et al. (2018) 4,357 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest General 7% 4% 78% 54% Pell eligible: 26%
Cain & Dweck (1995) 139 Elementary School Midwest General 3% 13% 84% 50%
Canning, Muenks, Green, & Murphy (2019) 150 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 4.7% underrepresented minority 27%
Chen (2012) 1,225 Middle Grades The United States STEM 19% 16% 10% 48% 3% 41% Free and reduced lunch: 28%
Chen & Pajares (2010) 508 Middle Grades Southeast STEM 48% 10% 16% 19% 3% 42% Free and reduced lunch: 28%
Claro, Paunesku, & Dweck (2016) 168,552 High School Chile General
Destin, Hanselman, Buontempo, Tipton, & Yeager (2019) 4,828 High School The United States Yes General 4% 11% 22% 45% 18% other, including multiracial 50% 34% bachelors or higher
Good, Aronson, & Inzlicht (2003) 138 Middle Grades Texas General 15% 63% 22% 45% Low income
Gunderson et al. (2013) 53 Caregivers, Early Childhood and Middle Grades Illinois General ; STEM 64% 11% 17% 8% two or more races 45.30% Ranged from 10-18 years, with an average of 15.9 years Income ranged from 15K to 100K, with average of 61K
Gunderson et al. (2018) 53 Caregivers and Elementary School The United States General 17% 11% 64% 8% mixed racial background less than high school to advanced Mean income: 62K (15K- 100+K)
Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 1 73 Caregivers and Elementary School California General 95.8% college educated
Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 2 160 Caregivers The United States General 35% 53% had college or higher
Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 3a 102 Caregivers, Elementary School and Middle Grades The United States General 31%
Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 3b 100 Caregivers and Elementary School California General 54%
Haimovitz & Dweck (2016): Study 4 132 Caregivers The United States General 7% 12% 6% 75% 57% 9% had college or higher
Haimovitz, Wormington, & Corpus (2011) 978 Elementary School and Middle Grades Oregon General 12% 11% 79% Free and reduced lunch: 21-74%
Heyder, Weidinger, Cimpian, & Steinmayr (2019) 886 Elementary School and Instructors Germany STEM German was the first language 59.5% had <100 books at home (low income)
Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan (1999): Study 1 97 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 51%
Hong, Chiu, Dweck, Lin, & Wan (1999): Study 2 168 Two- or Four-Year College Hong Kong General
Leslie, Cimpian, Meyer, & Freeland (2015) 1,820 Instructors The United States STEM 100%
Mueller & Dweck (1998) 128 Elementary School Midwest and Northeast General 19% 31% 50%
Muradoglu & Cimpian (in prep) Early Childhood General
Rattan, Savani, Naidu, & Dweck (2012): Study 1a 148 Two- or Four-Year College California and India General CA: 65.8% India: 59.4% competitive universities & middle class background
Rattan, Savani, Naidu, & Dweck (2012): Study 1b 100 Two- or Four-Year College California and India General CA: 30%; India: 43.5% competitive universities & middle class background
Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 1 41 Two- or Four-Year College The West Coast STEM 44% 5% 20% 29% 2% Native American 66%
Rattan, Savani, Naidu, & Dweck (2012): Study 2 95 Two- or Four-Year College The East Coast STEM 13% 4% 11 68% 1% unreported3% mixed 92%
Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 3 41 Instructors The West Coast
Rattan, Good & Dweck (2012): Study 4 54 Two- or Four-Year College The West Coast STEM 28% 15% students 11% 39% 4% Native American 4% biracial 52%
Romero, Master, Paunesku, Dweck, & Gross (2014) 115 Middle Grades The United States General 36% 2% 6% 37% 16% multiracial 56% grad college, 31% some college; 6% high school
Seo, Shen, & Alfaro (2019) 14,320 High School The United States Yes STEM 10% 14% 16% 61% 50%
Sun (2018) 40 Instructors California STEM
Yeager et al. (2016) 7,501 High School The United States and Canada STEM 5% 6% 17% 48% 3% Native American 53% bachelor or higher
Yeager et al. (2019) 12,490 High School The United States Yes STEM 4% 11% 24% 43% 18% another race or ethnicity 29% mother had bachelor's degree or higher

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