COMPENDIUM OF STUDIES THAT MEASURE LEARNING MINDSETS
SECTION 2: BELONGING

Table 1: Developmental Stage, Subject Area, and Representativeness of the Study Samples

 

Instructions: In the table below, each cell represents the number of studies with a particular demographic and measure type combination. Click the plus sign to the left to see the abridged citations for each study. Click the abridged citation to see more information about the sample size and demographics (or scroll down to see additional information about all the samples in Table 2).

National Representative

StudentsInstructorsCaregivers
Early ChildhoodElementary SchoolGrades 1-5Middle GradesGrades 6-8High SchoolGrades 9-12Two- or Four-Year College
STEM-specific beliefs about belonging 11412
Maloney & Matthews (2020)Maloney & Matthews (2020)Maloney & Matthews (2020)Master, Cheryan, & Meltzoff (2015) – Study 1, Sample 1Master, Cheryan, & Meltzoff (2015) – Study 1, Sample 2Master, Cheryan, & Meltzoff (2015) – Study 2Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) – Study 1Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) – Study 2Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) – Study 3Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) – Study 4Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) – Study 1, Sample 1Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) – Study 1, Sample 2Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) – Study 2Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) – Study 3Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski, & Hyde (2016)Lewis & Hodges (2015) – Study 1Lewis & Hodges (2015) – Study 2Walton, Logel, Peach, Spencer, & Zanna (2015)
Beliefs about belonging 93161
Anderman (2003)Covarrubias & Fryberg (2015) – Study 1Covarrubias & Fryberg (2015) – Study 2Furlong, O’brennan, & You (2011)Goodenow & Grady (1993) – Sample 1Goodenow & Grady (1993) – Sample 2Goodenow (1993)Goyer et al. (2019) – Study 2Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014)Furlong, O’brennan, & You (2011)Sanchez, Colon, & Esparza (2005)Wallace, Ye, & Chhuon (2012) – Phase 2Broda et al. 2018Fong, Alejandro, Krou, Segovia, & Johnston-Ashton (2019) – Sample 1Fong, Alejandro, Krou, Segovia, & Johnston-Ashton (2019) – Sample 2Gopalan & Brady (2019)Hoffman, Richmond, Morrow, & Salomone (2003)Hurtado & Carter (1997)Lee & Robbins (1995) – Sample 1Lee & Robbins (1995) – Sample 2Mendoza-Denton, Downey, Purdie, Davis, & Pietrzak (2002) – Study 3Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) – Study 2, Sample 1Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) – Study 2, Sample 2Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) – Study 3, Sample 1Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) – Study 3, Sample 2Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) – Study 4, Sample 1Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) – Study 4, Sample 2Walton & Cohen (2007) – Study 1Walton & Cohen (2007) – Study 2

Table 2: Compendium Studies: Sample Size and Demographics

 

Instructions: Use the arrows next to the column headers to sort this table. Click the gray buttons below to view more columns in the table. For example, clicking the button labeled ‘Latinx’ will add a column to Table 2 that is populated with the percentage of Latinx students in each study. Click a citation in the “Article” column to see more details about the study, including selected items, response scales, and the DOI where available (or click here to see additional information about all studies in Table 3). Articles with more than one distinct sample occupy multiple rows.

† Indicates one or more authors is affiliated with the Mindset Scholars Network as a scholar or an early career fellow or mentor.

Article N Developmental Stage Geographic Area Nationally Representative? Subject Area Asian Black Latinx Native American Hawaiian and/or Pacific Islander White Other First Generation College-goer Students with Disabilities Emerging multilingual learners Women and Girls Mother’s Highest Level of Education Family Economic Information School or Institution Composition
Wallace, Ye, & Chhuon (2012) - Phase 2 890 High School Pennsylvania General 1-2% 28-40% .5-1% 1-3% 0-.5% 30-39% 18-24% multiracial; 3-5% unknown 48-54%
Mendoza-Denton, Downey, Purdie, Davis, & Pietrzak (2002) - Study 3 66 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 71%
Maloney & Matthews (2020) 321 Elementary School, High School and Middle Grades Northeast United States STEM 56% 30% 13% other, predominantly multiracial

85% of students were eligible for free-reduced lunch

Lewis & Hodges (2015) - Study 2 253 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 71% 70%
Lewis & Hodges (2015) - Study 1 605 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 73% 65%
Goyer et al. (2019) - Study 2 137 Middle Grades Northeast United States General 50% 50% 53%

93% White instructors

Gopalan & Brady (2019) 23,750 Two- or Four-Year College The United States Yes General
Furlong, O'brennan, & You (2011) 500,800 High School and Middle Grades California General 14% 5% 36% 2% 1% 35% 7% Biracial 54%
Fong, Alejandro, Krou, Segovia, & Johnston-Ashton (2019) - Sample 2 887 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 4% 15% 12% 0% 60% 9%
Fong, Alejandro, Krou, Segovia, & Johnston-Ashton (2019) - Sample 1 887 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 100% 56% ≈67% of students employed, most work >30 hours per week

Median enrollment of Indigenous-identifying students = .5% across institutions

Covarrubias & Fryberg (2015) - Study 2 117 Middle Grades Washington General 61% <1% 1% Multiracial 67% (42% Native American , 25% White)

46% Free and reduced lunch

7% Asian

3% Black

8% Latinx

39% White

23% Native American

Master, Cheryan, & Meltzoff (2015) - Study 1, Sample 2 111 High School Northwest United States STEM 3% 29% 24% Asian/Pacific Islander 29% 8% Multiracial 3% Other 46% 65% Free and reduced lunch
Walton, Logel, Peach, Spencer, & Zanna (2015) 228 Two- or Four-Year College Canada STEM 34% South Asian/ Middle Eastern 38% 20% Unknown 40%
Walton & Cohen (2007) - Study 2 55 Two- or Four-Year College Northeast United States General 46% 55%
Walton & Cohen (2007) - Study 1 69 Two- or Four-Year College Northeast United States General 51% 49% 58%
Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) - Study 4, Sample 2 80 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 1% 10% 15% 65% 9% Identified as other or did not report 0%
Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) - Study 4, Sample 1 67 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 8% 10% 24% 2% 49% 8% Identified as other or did not report 100% 60% Avg income = 50K-75K
Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) - Study 3, Sample 2 46 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 15% 2% 13% 53% 17% Identified as other or did not report 0% Avg income = ≈80K
Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) - Study 3, Sample 1 42 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 43% 2% 26% 7% 14% 7% Identified as other or did not report 100% Avg income = ≈45K
Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) - Study 2, Sample 2 1,179 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 22% 10% 11% 3% 39% 14% Identified as other or did not report 0% 7% Low income
Stephens, Fryberg, Markus, Johnson, & Covarrubias (2012) - Study 2, Sample 1 245 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 23% 13% 37% 7% 13% 7% Identified as other or did not report 100% 46% Low income
Sanchez, Colon, & Esparza (2005) 143 High School Midwest United States General 4% 42% Mexican 39% Puerto Rican 9% Other Latinx 6% Biethnic Latinx 52% 53% < High school 35% High school diploma 59% From two-parent household 32% From one-parent household

85% Free and reduced lunch

53% Graduation rate

95% Latinx (48% Mexican; 40% Puerto Rican, 8% other Latinx)

2% Other

Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014) 600 Middle Grades New York General 38% Dominican: 26% Puerto Rican: 18% Latinx (no ethnic delineation): 9% Mexican: 5% 1% Biracial <1% Other 43% 25% < High school 34% High school diploma 22% High school diploma plus some higher education 11% Associate's degree 6% Bachelor's Degree 2% Advanced degree
Master, Cheryan, & Meltzoff (2015) - Study 1, Sample 1 54 High School Northwest United States STEM 4% 2% 7% Asian/ Pacific Islander 72% 11% Multiracial 2% Other 48% 17% Free and reduced lunch
Master, Cheryan, & Meltzoff (2015) - Study 2 104 High School Northwest United States STEM 9% 27% 19% Asian/ Pacific Islander 30% 14% Multiracial 1% Other 46%
Lee & Robbins (1995) - Sample 2 310 Two- or Four-Year College Southeast United States General 5% 20% 2% 68% 63%
Lee & Robbins (1995) - Sample 1 311 Two- or Four-Year College Southeast United States General 10% 19% 2% 66% 65%
Hurtado & Carter (1997) 272 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 99% 58%
Hoffman, Richmond, Morrow, & Salomone (2003) 205 Two- or Four-Year College Rhode Island General
Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski, & Hyde (2016) 1,040 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 8% Underrepresented Minority 21% 60%
Goodenow (1993) 353 Middle Grades New England General 7% 93% 47%
Goodenow & Grady (1993) - Sample 2 103 Middle Grades Northeast United States General 1% 7% 76% 16% 42%
Goodenow & Grady (1993) - Sample 1 198 Middle Grades Northeast United States General 1% 45% 16% 34% 5% Unreported 44%
Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) - Study 3 1,005 Two- or Four-Year College United States East Coast STEM 24% 6% 6% 55% 9% Other or unidentified 54%
Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) - Study 2 73 Two- or Four-Year College Northeast United States STEM 32% 21% 8% 38% 1% Other or unidentified 59%
Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) - Study 1, Sample 2 498 Two- or Four-Year College Northeast United States STEM 20% 4% 3% 45% 28% Other or unidentified 52%
Good, Rattan, & Dweck (2012) - Study 1, Sample 1 499 Two- or Four-Year College Northeast United States STEM 21% 3% 5% 47% 24% Other or unidentified 55%
Covarrubias & Fryberg (2015) - Study 1 90 Middle Grades Washington General 100%

37% Free and reduced lunch

8% Asian

3% Black

10% Latinx

69% White

11% Native American

Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) - Study 4 96 Two- or Four-Year College Washington STEM 80%
Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) - Study 3 85 Two- or Four-Year College Washington STEM 73%
Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) - Study 2 34 Two- or Four-Year College Georgia STEM 100%
Cheryan, Plaut, Davies, & Steele (2009) - Study 1 39 Two- or Four-Year College California STEM 56%
Anderman (2003) 618 Middle Grades Southeast United States General 9% 88% 3% 60%

44%+ Free and reduced lunch

School poverty level: 14-62%

Broda et al. 2018 4,357 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States General 7% 4% 78% 54% 26% Pell eligible

UPDATES Sign up to receive periodic updates from the Mindset Scholars Network.

Open Popup