COMPENDIUM OF STUDIES THAT MEASURE LEARNING MINDSETS
SECTION 3: PURPOSE AND RELEVANCE

Table 1: Developmental Stage, Subject Area, and Representativeness of the Study Samples

 

Instructions: In the table below, each cell represents the number of studies with a particular demographic and measure type combination. Click the plus sign to the left to see the abridged citations for each study. Click the abridged citation to see more information about the sample size and demographics (or scroll down to see additional information about all the samples in Table 2).

National Representative

StudentsInstructorsCaregivers
Early ChildhoodElementary SchoolGrades 1-5Middle GradesGrades 6-8High SchoolGrades 9-12Two- or Four-Year College
STEM-specific beliefs about value 19192161
Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017)Chouinard, Karsenti, & Roy (2007)Conley (2012)Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 1Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 2Guo, Marsh, Parker, Morin, & Yeung (2015)Kosovich, Hulleman, Barron, & Getty (2015)Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 2Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 3Peterson & Hyde (2017)Anderson & Ward (2014)Chouinard, Karsenti, & Roy (2007)Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 1Eccles & Wigfield (1995) – Sample 2Harackiewicz, Rozek, Hulleman, & Hyde (2012)Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 2Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 3Nagengast et al. (2011)Peterson & Hyde (2017)Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) – Sample 1Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) – Study 1Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) – Study 2Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) – Study 3Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) – Study 1Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) – Study 2Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) – Study 3Diekman, Brown, Johnston, & Clark (2010)Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 1aDiekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 1bDiekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 1cDiekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 2Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) – Study 3Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski, & Hyde (2016)Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) – Study 1Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2018)Perez, Cromley, & Kaplan (2015)Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) – Sample 2
Beliefs about value 354
Gray, Mcelveen, Green, & Bryant (2020)Matthews (2014)Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014)Gaspard et al. (2015)Gray (2017)Matthews (2014)Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014)Yeager et al. (2014)Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) – Study 1Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) – Study 2Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) – Study 1Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) – Study 2

STEM-specific beliefs about value

Table 2: Compendium Studies: Sample Size and Demographics

 

Instructions: Use the arrows next to the column headers to sort this table. Press the gray buttons below to view more columns in the table. For example, clicking the button labeled ‘Latinx’ will add a column to Table 2 that is populated with the percentage of Latinx students in each study. Click a citation in the “Article” column to see more details about the study, including selected items, response scales, and the DOI where available (or click here to see additional information about all studies in Table 3). Articles with more than one distinct sample occupy multiple rows.

† Indicates one or more authors is affiliated with the Mindset Scholars Network as a scholar or an early career fellow or mentor.

Article N Developmental Stage Geographic Area Nationally Representative? Subject Area Asian Black Latinx Native American Hawaiian and/or Pacific Islander White Other First Generation College-goer Students with Disabilities Emerging multilingual learners Women and Girls Mother’s Highest Level of Education Family Economic Information School or Institution Composition
Anderson & Ward (2014) 1,757 High School The United States Yes STEM 14% 27% 60% 48%
Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) - Study 1 594 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 86% 63%
Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) - Study 2 256 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 64% 53%
Brown, Thoman, Smith, & Diekman (2015) - Study 3 452 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 20% 11% 9% 56% 63%
Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) - Study 1 88 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 2% 1% 5% 92% 52%
Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) - Study 2 113 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 2% 3% 1% 94% 71%
Canning & Harackiewicz (2016) - Study 3 134 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 3% 1% 2% 94% 69%
Chouinard, Karsenti, & Roy (2007) 759 High School and Middle Grades Canada STEM 49%
Conley (2012) 1,870 Middle Grades California STEM 17% 2% 69% 2% 53%

56% Free and reduced lunch

Diekman, Brown, Johnston, & Clark (2010) 333 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 87% 58%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 1a 318 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 89% 66%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 1b 75 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 84% 45%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 1c 555 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 86% 63%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 2 64 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 89% 58%
Diekman, Clark, Johnston, Brown, & Steinberg (2011) - Study 3 241 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 86% 59%
Eccles & Wigfield (1995) - Sample 1 742 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 49%
Eccles & Wigfield (1995) - Sample 2 575 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM
Gray (2017) 702 High School The United States General 4% 4% 2% 9% Asian/Pacific Islander 74% 10% Multiracial or other 45% 31% Free and reduced lunch

31% Free and reduced lunch

Guo, Marsh, Parker, Morin, & Yeung (2015) ≈13,000 Middle Grades Hong Kong Yes STEM ≈50%
Harackiewicz, Rozek, Hulleman, & Hyde (2012) 188 High School The United States STEM 2% 1% 90% 7% Multiracial 47%

Avg household income = ≈$51,066 (above the US average)

Harackiewicz, Canning, Tibbetts, Priniski, & Hyde (2016) 1,040 Two- or Four-Year College Midwest United States STEM 8% Underrepresented Minority 21% 60%
Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) - Study 1 107 Two- or Four-Year College Wisconsin General 3% 1% 4% 92% 53%
Hulleman, Godes, Hendricks, & Harackiewicz (2010) - Study 2 318 Two- or Four-Year College Wisconsin General
Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) - Study 1 97 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 4% 4% 84% 70%
Hulleman, Kosovich, Barron, & Daniel (2017) - Study 2 357 Two- or Four-Year College The United States General 4% 6% 84% 70%
Kosovich, Hulleman, Barron, & Getty (2015) 401 Middle Grades Southeast United States STEM 4% 9% 31% 51% 5% 51%
Lauermann, Tsai, & Eccles (2017) 361 Elementary School, High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 51% 55% of the sample had at least one parent with a college degree or higher
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) - Study 1 858 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 69%
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) - Study 2 284 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 15% 1% 82% 4% 50%
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2010) - Study 3 246 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 16% 72% 10% 10% 46%
Linnenbrink-Garcia et al. (2018) 587 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 46% 15% 8% 24% 7% Multiracial or other 66%
Matthews (2014) 330 High School and Middle Grades New York General 43% 56% <1% Biracial 22% < High school 35% High school diploma 28% High school diploma plus some higher education 8% Bachelor's degree 6% Advanced degree
Matthews, Banerjee, & Lauermann (2014) 600 High School and Middle Grades New York General 38% 58% 1% Biracial <1% Other 43% 25% < High school 34% High school diploma 22% High school diploma plus some higher education 11% Associate's degree 6% Bachelor's Degree 2% Advanced degree
Perez, Cromley, & Kaplan (2015) 363 Two- or Four-Year College The United States STEM 24% 11% 1% 45% 10% Indian subcontinent 5% Multiracial 3% Middle Eastern 2% Other 58% 30% of parents < High school diploma
Peterson & Hyde (2017) 288 High School and Middle Grades The United States STEM 1% 90% 9% Multiracial 49%
Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) - Sample 1 188 High School Wisconsin STEM 2% 1% 90% 7% Biracial or multiracial 48%
Rozek, Hyde, Svoboda, Hulleman, & Harackiewicz (2014) - Sample 2 Caregivers Wisconsin STEM
Gaspard et al. (2015) 1,916 High School Germany General 54%
Gray, Mcelveen, Green, & Bryant (2020) 98 Middle Grades Southeast United States General 46% 34% 3% 5% 12%, predominantly biracial or multiracial 46% 90% + more received free or reduced-price lunch
Nagengast et al. (2011) 398,750 High School International Yes STEM 51%
Yeager et al. (2014) 1,364 High School The United States General 5% 38% 48% 4% 57%

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