Research Library

Search over three decades of research on mindsets, including Mindset Scholars Network briefs and working papers, and other publications from Network studies and initiatives.


Developmental Stage

Publication Type

Belonging and self-affirmation interventions mitigated the effects of a "chilly climate" women may experience in engineering, especially in male dominated fields. The belonging intervention helped women better integrate into the department and build more relationships with male peers, while the affirmation training intervention led them to develop external resources that helped them manage the stress that can arise from social marginalization. Both interventions raised women's GPA, eliminating gender differences.

The authors suggest that standard measures of academic performance are biased against non-Asian ethnic minorities and women in quantitative fields. This bias results from the context in which they are assessed—from psychological threats in common academic environments, which depress the performances of people targeted by negative intellectual stereotypes. Two meta-analyses, combining data from 18,976 students, tested this latent-ability hypothesis. Both meta-analyses found that, under conditions that reduce psychological threat, stereotyped students performed better than nonstereotyped students at the same level of past performance. The authors discuss implications for the interpretation of and remedies for achievement gaps.