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This article reviews recent field experiments showing that intrinsic goal framing (relative to extrinsic goal framing and no-goal framing) produces deeper engagement in learning activities, better conceptual learning, and higher persistence at learning activities. These effects occur for both intrinsically and extrinsically oriented individuals. Results are discussed in terms of self-determination theory’s concept of basic psychological needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness.
tags: review article