RESEARCH LIBRARY

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An important consequence of negative stereotypes about certain groups' intellectual ability is to convey to members of these groups that they are not seen as individuals, that they may not be fully valued or respected—that they may not belong—in academic settings. In this chapter, the authors review research demonstrating that people who contend with numeric underrepresentation and with negative stereotypes in mainstream academic and professional arenas are vigilant for cues that could communicate they do not belong or are not fully included in these settings. When encountered, such cues can undermine people’s sense of belonging, motivation, and achievement. The authors review effective remedies.