Developmental Stage

Publication Type

Results: Identity Threat

Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence
Aronson, JoshuaFried, Carrie B.Good, Catherine
2002, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology

In one experiment, college students who believed they were writing motivational letters to middle schoolers about intelligence being malleable later earned higher grades than those in a control group. The effect was most pronounced for African American students, who also reported enjoying school more.