This compendium of studies provides researchers with an overview of survey measurement of learning mindsets – which include growth mindset, belonging, and purpose and relevance – in educational settings. It is a curated collection of empirical studies that include at least one survey measure of a learning mindset.

The compendium is organized into three subsections of studies that correspond with the learning mindsets listed above. Information about each study and survey is included, such as (where available) geographic location of data collection, sample demographics, illustrative survey items, and response scales. Citations for studies are provided; further permissions from journal publishers or authors may be required to access studies and/or survey measures in their entirety.


There is a large and growing body of research on learning mindsets. We relied on several criteria to curate a collection that will have utility for researchers who are newly interested in learning mindsets as well as those with expertise in this content area. Only empirical studies that are published in peer-reviewed journals were eligible for this compendium. Journal impact factor and the number of study citations were considered in concert with our objectives to (1) be inclusive of recently published advances in knowledge and (2) maximize representation of surveys from multiple fields of study and frameworks for understanding these constructs.

Much of the published research that includes the measures of interest relies on samples that are not representative of the nation’s diverse student population. In this compendium, we oversampled research that was nationally-representative of the U.S. and/or included minoritized populations. Contextualizing information about study samples is included, however, many studies reported on only gender, developmental stage, race and ethnicity, and geographic location, to the exclusion of other important factors such as details about the sociohistorical context, and students’ primary language spoken, disabilities, and family economic background. The studies captured in this compendium reflect a broader trend in social science and education research — and, in particular, research published in high-impact journals — to understudy, underconceptualize, and underreport the full spectrum of students’ identities and lived experiences. For more on these topics, see Matthews and Lopez (2020).

This compendium is designed for use by researchers. For more information about survey measurement of psychological constructs for practice and policy purposes, see Duckworth and Yeager (2015).



The studies in this section include a measure of growth mindset, or the belief that intelligence can be developed with effort and is not a fixed or innate quality.


The studies in this section include measures of belonging and belonging uncertainty in academic settings, or the extent to which students feel socially connected, supported, and respected in school.


The studies in this section include measures of purpose, relevance, value, or cost, which capture students’ perceptions about the meaningfulness and importance of school for their own lives and/or the lives of others.

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